This report outlines the 2005 UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted on October 20, 2005. Emphasizing cultural diversity as a defining human characteristic, the Convention underscores its role in sustainable development, peace, and human rights. It highlights the need for protection and promotion of cultural expressions, including traditional knowledge, while addressing challenges posed by globalization. Recognizing the economic and cultural dimensions of cultural activities, the Convention advocates for the vital role of freedom of thought and expression. With an emphasis on UNESCO’s mandate, it reaffirms the interconnectedness of cultural rights, diversity, and global well-being.